What is written language?
Language can be classified as receptive (listening and reading) and expressive (speaking and writing). In some cases, augmentative/alternative communication may
be required for individuals demonstrating impairments in gestural, spoken, and/or written modalities. (ASHA, 1993).
Spoken language and written language and their associated components (i.e., receptive and expressive) are each a synergistic system comprised of individual language
domains (i.e., phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics) that form a dynamic integrative whole (Berko Gleason, 2005)
| Reading and Written Language
ASHA American Speech & Hearing Association
|Phonology||understanding of letter-sound associations while reading (i.e., phonics)||accurate spelling of words while writing|
|Morphology||understanding grammar while reading||appropriate use of grammar when writing|
|Syntax||understanding sentence structure while reading||using correct sentence structure when writing|
|Semantics||reading vocabulary||writing vocabulary|
|understanding point-of-view, needs of the audience, etc.||conveying point-of-view, intended message, etc.|